Bia “thầy tu” – câu chuyện về thương hiệu bia cao cấp

Bia thầy tu đã được các nhà tu dòng Xi-tô sản xuất trên hầu hết các vùng lãnh thổ thuộc châu Âu.

Có khá nhiều câu chuyện thú vị về bia thầy tu, trong đó bao gồm câu chuyện về ba loại bia: La Trappe (bia thầy tu duy nhất tại Hà Lan), Rochefort (tu viện và là nơi sản xuất bia bị hỏa hoạn cuối năm 2010), và Westvleteren (một loại bia không hề gắn nhãn mác). Hôm nay, tôi muốn giới thiệu đến các bạn cả 7 loại bia “thầy tu”, dưới góc độ lịch sử, loại bia, đặc trưng lý tính và một số thông tin khác.

Bia thầy tu Chimay

Ngược dòng thời gian, trước đây, bia thầy tu đã được các nhà tu dòng Xi-tô sản xuất trên hầu hết các vùng lãnh thổ thuộc châu Âu như Pháp (là nơi khởi nguồn của dòng bia này), Đức, Bỉ, Áo, Hà Lan, thậm chí cả tại Bosnia. Ngày nay, bia thày tu chỉ được đóng dấu “Authentic Trappist Product” (logo thương hiệu sản phẩm của dòng tu này) khi được chính các thày tu kiểm soát và thực hiện quá trình sản xuất.

Tính đến tháng 4 năm nay, toàn thế giới có 174 tu viện thuộc dòng tu này, và chỉ có 7 loại đang được chính thức công nhận. Bia thầy tu, cũng như tất cả các sản phẩm khác như sữa, phô-mai (cheese), bánh mỳ do các thày tu sản xuất ra và được dán logo trên đều phải tuân thủ những nguyên tắc rất nghiêm ngặt của giáo phái, đặc biệt là yêu cầu không được sản xuất vì mục đích thương mại mà chỉ lấy lãi trang trải cuộc sống hàng ngày, làm từ thiện và sang sửa tu viện. Những loại bia khác, cho dù có thể được sản xuất dưới sự kiểm soát hoặc trong khuôn viên nhà thờ và với chất lượng rất cao, vẫn chỉ được coi là bia tu viện (Abbey).

Xin hãy cùng điểm qua 3 trong số 7 loại bia thày tu, theo thứ tự trong bảng chữ cái.

Achel

Bia Achel có 4 loại, bao gồm:

bia thầy tu Achel

• “Five Brown” (bia số 5, màu nâu): là loại bia có màu hổ phách nghiêng sang đỏ, trong, không bổ sung đường trong quá trình lên men, nồng độ cồn 5%.

• “Five Pale” (bia số 5, màu vàng tía): là loại bia với màu vàng tía đặc trưng của dòng bia lên men nổi “pale ale”, vị đậm đà, hương tròn trịa.

• “Eight” (bia số 8): là loại bia ale có màu vàng nhạt, hơi đục, hương vị đậm đà, và là loại bia duy nhất được đóng chai.

•  Và loại đặc biệt, Achel Extra Brown là loại bia nâu, độ cồn cao tới 9,5% thể tích. Loại bia này mới bắt đầu được sản xuất từ tháng 5 năm 2002.

Chimay

Bia Chimay có 3 loại phổ biến: Đỏ, trắng và xanh tím, được gọi tùy theo màu của nút chai.

bia thầy tu, Chimay

• Chimay đỏ: ở Bỉ còn được gọi là “người tiên phong” do đây là loại bia đầu tiên được các thày tu nấu. Bia có màu đỏ đồng, bọt bia mịn. Quy trình lên men tạo cho bia Chimay đỏ mùi hương mơ nhẹ nhàng. Ngoài ra, mùi hương của bia là một tổng hòa cân bằng của mùi hoa quả, lan tỏa trong vòm miệng khi uống. Bia có vị êm mượt, tươi mát, thoảng vị đắng nhẹ nhàng. Nồng độ cồn của bia đỏ là 7%.

• Chimay trắng: là loại bia trippel được một vị cha xứ tên là Theodore nấu lần đầu tiên năm 1966. Bia có màu vàng sáng, đục, bọt bia rất mịn. Mùi hương của Chimay trắng pha trộn hài hòa đắc trưng của hoa bia tươi và nấm men. Mùi thơm của bia còn giúp mang lại vị của hạt óc chó và nho khô. Vị đắng của bia tan nhẹ trong miệng sau khi uống. Bia có độ cồn 8%. 

• Chimay xanh: có tên thường gọi là “Grand Reserve” với loại chai 0,75l, “Magnum” với loại chai 1,5l, và “Jeroboam” đối với chai 3,0l. Đây cũng là loại bia được cha Theodore làm ra vào năm 1948, với mục đích ban đầu là bia dành cho lễ Giáng sinh. Mùi hương quyến rũ mang đặc trưng men bia tươi mát, pha chút hương hoa hồng của loại bia này đã nhanh chóng khiến nó trở thành một loại bia được sản xuất quanh năm. Bia có vị “khô” khá rõ, cùng với vị caramel khá sắc nét. Bia có nồng độ 9%.

Trong 3 loại bia của Chimay, bia xanh là loại duy nhất có in năm sản xuất trên nhãn chính, vì nếu được bảo quản tốt trong điều kiện mát và không có ánh sáng, bia càng để lâu càng ngon.

La Trappe

Bia La Trappe được sản xuất tại tu viện Koningshoeven ở vùng Tilburg của Hà Lan, và cho đến nay là loại bia thày tu duy nhất được sản xuất bên ngoài biên giới Bỉ. Bia La Trappe có 4 loại chính: Blond, Dubbel, Tripel và Quadrupel.

• Blonde: có màu vàng nhạt, trong, thuộc loại bia dễ uống. Quy trình nấu bia sử dụng hoa đã sấy và xử lý, tạo cho bia có vị mềm mại, dư vị hơi đắng với hương thơm mát. Bia Blonde có nồng độ 6,5%.

• Dubbel: có màu đỏ hồng ngọc sẫm, hương thơm mát, vị mềm mại và tươi mới. Bia Dubbel có nồng độ 6,5%.

• Trippel: có màu vàng sẫm, hương quả đặc trưng và khá sắc nét, vị bia hơi ngọt và dư vị đắng khá rõ. Bia Trippel có nồng độ 8%.

• Quadrupel: loại bia đặc biệt nhất của La Trappe với công đoạn cuối cùng bia được ngâm ủ trong thùng gỗ sồi, tạo nên màu sắc, hương và vị rất đặc biệt, không “đụng hàng”. Bia có màu nâu nhạt, mùi thơm rất phức hợp, mùi cồn khá nổi do bia có nồng độ tới 10%. Vị bia tròn trịa, đậm đà nhưng lại êm dịu và vị đắng đạt đến độ ngọt ngào. Bia Quadrupel càng để lâu càng ngon và đặc biệt ngon khi uống trong những chiều đông hơi se lạnh.

Ngoài 4 loại bia phổ biến nói trên, tu viện Koningshoeven gần đây (2004) còn bổ sung vào danh sách các loại bia của mình một số loại bia khác như:

• Bia Bock, một loại bia nâu sậm dành riêng cho tiết mùa thu, độ cồn 7,3%;

• White Trappist (bia trắng) dành cho mùa hè, là loại bia không lọc, không thanh trùng, tạm gọi là bia “sống”.

• Năm 2009, để kỷ niệm 125 năm ngày thành lập nhãn hiệu bia La Trappe, các nữ tu sĩ đã sản xuất ra loại La Trappe Isid’or (2009), là bia dành cho phụ nữ có sử dụng loại hoa bia Perle do chính các nữ tu sĩ trồng. Bia có nồng độ 7,5%.

Orval

bia thủ công, orval

Orval chỉ sản xuất duy nhất 1 loại bia để bán ra thị trường. Bia Orval tiếp tục quá trình lên men sau khi được đóng chai, rất thơm do sử dụng rất nhiều hoa bia và do loại men bia đặc biệt. Hoa bia được bổ sung thêm một lần nữa trong giai đoạn lên men thứ cấp trong các thùng ủ. Lượng hoa bia đặc biệt nhiều cũng giúp cho bia có thời gian bảo quản trong chai lâu hơn, có thể tới 5 năm. Bia có độ cồn 6,2%. Đây cũng là một loại bia càng để lâu càng ngon. Những chai Orval “trẻ”, có thời gian từ khi đóng chai đến khi uống ít hơn 1 năm thường có vị ngọt hơn, trong khi hương thơm lại kém sắc nét hơn những chai bia “già” hơn, với vị khô rõ rệt hơn và hương thơm nhuần nhuyễn hơn.

Rocherfort

Tu viện Saint-Remy of Rochefort, nơi sản xuất loại bia này đã từng bị cháy hồi cuối năm 2010, dấy lên một cuộc bàn tán sôi nổi của những người yêu bia thày tu trên toàn thế giới. Bia Rochefort có màu nâu sẫm, tiếp tục lên men trong chai, được chia thành 3 loại, đánh số 6, 8 và 10.


bia thủ công Rocherfort

• Trappistes Rochefort 6: là loại bia được sản xuất đầu tiên, vị malt rõ rệt trong khi vị đắng khá nhẹ.

• Trappistes Rochefort 8: là bia có tuổi đời trẻ nhất trong các loại bia Rochefort, ra đời năm 1955. Loại bia này được sản xuất ban đầu phục vụ cho đêm giao thừa của tu viện. Tuy nhiên, với những đặc điểm của mình, và với độ cồn khá mạnh 9,2%, loại bia này nhanh chóng được sử dụng trong các cuộc gặp gỡ bạn bè, và do đó nhanh chóng được chuyển sang sản xuất quanh năm khoảng 5 năm sau ngày đầu ra mắt. Đôi khi bia số 8 này còn được gọi là bia “đặc biệt”.

• Trappistes Rochefort 10: còn được gọi là bia “tuyệt hảo”, với độ cồn 11,3%, hương thơm của bia số 10 nồng nàn và phức hợp hơn so với bia số 6 và số 8.

Westmalle

Cũng như tất cả các loại bia thày tu, tên tuổi của bia được gắn liền với các loại nguyên liệu tự nhiên được sử dụng trong quá trình nấu bia: nguồn nước duy nhất, malt chọn lọc, hoa bia chất lượng cao, đường tự nhiên và men bia đặc chủng. Bia Westmalle cũng tiếp tục lên men trong chai, đồng nghĩa với hương và vị của bia tiếp tục được tăng cường theo thời gian trong điều kiện bảo quản tốt. Westmalle có hai loại: Double và Tripel.


bia thủ công Westmalle

• Westmalle’s Double: có màu đỏ nâu sậm. Bọt bia mịn, ngả màu kem, sau khi uống sẽ để lại một lớp mỏng dính trên thành cốc. Hương bia đậm đà và tổng hòa của nhiều hương vị khác nhau, vừa sắc nét của gia vị, vừa êm dịu của hoa quả. Vị bia tươi mát và có dư vị đắng và hơi “khô”, cảm giác mềm mại khi uống. Bia có độ cồn 7%.

• Westmalle’s Tripel: có màu vàng trung bình, trong. Hương bia nổi trội mùi hoa quả và hương hoa bia rõ nét. Vị bia mềm mại, hơi pha chút đắng. Bia có độ cồn 9,5%.

Do số lượng vô cùng hạn chế, bia Westvleteren rất khó mua. Chỉ có một nơi duy nhất bán loại bia này, là Trung tâm bán sản phẩm của tu viện, và phải luôn đặt hàng trước. Mỗi một lần đặt hàng, khách hàng chỉ được mua 1 trong 3 loại bia của tu viện với số lượng tối đa 24 chai. Đặc biệt, khách hàng phải cam kết chỉ được mua bia để uống chứ không được phép bán lại cho người thứ ba. Ba loại bia của Westvleteren bao gồm:

Westvleteren 

• Westvleteren Blond: bia vàng, nồng độ cồn 5,8%

• Westvleteren 8: bia số 8, nồng độ cồn 8%

• Westvleteren 12: bia số 12, cực kỳ hiếm, nồng độ cồn 10,2%


bia thủ công Westvleteren 

Trừ bia Blond, hai loại bia số 8 và số 12 càng để lâu càng “ngấu” và càng ngon. Để bảo quản, chai bia phải được đặt đứng trong môi trường nhiệt độ 12-18oC và không có ánh sáng mặt trời, không được để tủ lạnh. Loại bia này muốn uống cũng phải cầu kỳ: chai bia phải được đặt nguyên một chỗ ít nhất 1 tháng, rồi khi rót cũng phải rót đúng cách vào đúng loại ly ở nhiệt độ 12-16oC.

Nếu có dịp thăm nước Bỉ, bạn có thể tìm để thưởng thức các loại bia thầy tu nói trên. Tuy nhiên cần lưu ý rằng không phải lúc nào cũng dễ kiếm được các loại bia này. Như đã nói, Westvleteren có lẽ là loại bia khó mua nhất, và được coi là loại bia “phải uống” đối với rất nhiều người yêu bia. Những loại bia khác thì dễ mua hơn, ví dụ như Chimay và Westmalle có thể được tìm thấy ở hầu hết các siêu thị. Bia Orval và Rochefort thường dễ kiếm ở miền Nam nước Bỉ, nhưng cũng có thể mua trong siêu thị tại miền Bắc. Với bia Achel, bạn nên đến tỉnh Limburg thuộc miền Đông quốc gia này.

theo disanbiabi

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