Chile – Thiên đường rượu vang!

Chile là quốc gia rượu vang quan trọng nhất của Nam Mỹ. Nơi đây có diện tích hẹp chạy dọc theo biển phía tây của lục địa, sở hữu đa dạng các loại địa hình và được một số nhà phê bình đánh giá là “thiên đường rượu vang”.
Phong cách rượu vang Chile cũng vô cùng phong phú, đa dạng, từ dòng vang Sauvignon Blanc với hương thảo cỏ thanh nhẹ, tươi mới xuất xứ từ Casablanca và thung lũng Elqui đến rượu vang blend Bordeaux có nguồn gốc từ Maipo Valley và Colchagua.
Chile trải dài 4300km từ bắc chí nam giữa Thái Bình Dương và dãy núi Andes. Vị trí địa lý của nơi đây rất phù hợp với hoạt động trồng nho làm rượu. Tuy quốc gia này chỉ rộng 160km nhưng khí hậu lại phân hóa theo chiều từ đông sang tây thay vì từ bắc xuống nam. Trên Thái Bình Dương, dòng hải lưu Humboldt mang theo những cơn gió mát đến các vựa nho ven biển, trong khi đó, sự hiện diện của các ngọn núi giúp Central Valley của nơi đây duy trì được thời tiết khô ấm.
Rượu vang Chile đã được sản xuất từ giữa thế kỉ 16 khi những người Châu Âu đầu tiên đặt chân đến đây. Thế nhưng phải đến thế kỉ 19 việc làm rượu vang tại đây mới bắt đầu được mở rộng khi việc khai thác mỏ ở sa mạc Atacama mang đến sự giàu có cho nơi này. Thị hiếu rươụ vang Châu Âu bắt đầu xâm nhập vào Santiago và ngành làm rượu vang bắt đầu phát triển ở phía nam thành phố, xung quanh thung lũng Maipo. Sau đó các khu trồng nho làm rượu bắt đầu được xây dựng, cả phong cách rượu lẫn phong cách kiến trúc đều chịu ảnh hưởng rõ nét của Pháp.
Trong suốt thế kỉ 20, rượu vang Chile chủ yếu chỉ phục vụ thị trường nội địa, nhưng sau đó chất lượng rượu được nâng cao vào nửa cuối thế kỉ đã giúp nơi đây vươn ra thị trường thế giới. Trước đây, người làm rượu vang Chile thường sử dụng bể chứa và thùng rượu làm từ gỗ dẻ gai. Đến những năm 1980 nơi đây đã hiện đại hóa, dùng bể chứa làm bằng thép không rỉ và thùng gỗ sồi.
Vang Chile thường có chất lượng cao và đồng đều, một số dòng vang nổi tiếng thế giới có giá rất cao. Thông thường những dòng vang Chile này được làm từ các giống nho Bordeaux như Cabernet Sauvignon và Merlot. Ngoài ra, nho Pinot Noir tại những vùng có khí hậu mát hơn của Chile cũng đang bắt đầu tạo được sự chú ý.
Bên cạnh đó, Chile cũng đang hướng tới canh tác các giống Carmenere vốn từng được trồng rộng rãi tại Bordeaux. Giống nho này những tưởng đã bị tuyệt chủng sau nạn rệp rễ nho vào thế kỉ 19 nhưng sau đó đã được tìm thấy ở Chile vào những năm 1990.

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